Scientific publishing has long been a licence to print money. Scientists need joumals in which to publish
their research, so they will supply the articles without monetary reward. Other scientists perform the specialised work of peer review also for free, because it is a central element in the acquisition of status and the production of scientific knowledge.
With the content of papers secured for free, the publisher needs only fnd a market for its journal. Until this century, university libraries were not very price sensitive. Scientific publishers routinely report profit margins approaching 40% on their operations, at a time when the rest of the publishing industry is in an existential crisis.
The Dutch giant Elsevier, which claims to publish 25% of the scientific papers produced in the world,made profits of more than ￡900m last year, while UK universities alone spent more than ￡210m in 2016 toenable researchers to access their own publicly funded research; both figures seem to rise unstoppably despite increasingly desperate efforts to change them.
The most drastic, and thoroughly illegal, reaction has been the emergence of Sci-Hub, a kind of global photocopier for scientific papers, set up in 2012, which now claims to offer access to every paywalled article published since 2015. The success of Sci-Hub, which relies on researchers passing on copies they have themselves legally accessed, shows the legal ecosystem has lost legitimacy among its users and must be transformed so that it works for all participants.
In Britain the move towards open access publishing has been driven by funding bodies. In some ways it has been very successful. More than half of all British scientific research is now published under open access terms: either freely available from the moment of publication, or paywalled for a year or more so that the publishers can make a profit before being placed on general release.
Yet the new system has not worked out any cheaper for the universities. Publishers have responded to the demand that they make their product free to readers by charging their writers fees to cover the costs of preparing an article. These range from around ￡500 to $5,000. A report last year pointed out that the costs both of subscriptions and of these’’article preparation costs’’ had been steadily rising at a rate above inflation. In some ways the scientific publishing model resembles the economy of the social internet: labour is provided free in exchange for the hope of status, while huge profits are made by a few big firms who run the market places. In both cases, we need a rebalancing of power.
26. Scientific publishing is seen as“a licence to print money" partly because________
[A] its funding has enjoyed a steady increase .
[B] its marketing strategy has been successful.
[C] its payment for peer review is reduced.
[D] its content acquisition costs nothing.
27. According to Paragraphs 2 and 3, scientific publishers Elsevier have________
[A] thrived mainly on university libraries.
[B] gone through an existential crisis.
[C] revived the publishing industry.
[D] financed researchers generously.
28. How does the author feel about the success of Sci-Hub?
29. It can be learned from Paragraphs 5 and 6 that open access terms________
[A]allow publishers some room to make money.
[B] render publishing much easier for scientists.
[C] reduce the cost of publication substantially.
[D] free universities from financial burdens.
30. Which of the following characterises the scientific publishing model?
[A] Trial subscription is offered.
[B] Labour triumphs over status.
[C] Costs are well controlled.
D] The few feed on the many.
26, 細節題 D its content acquisition cost nothing
根據題干中關鍵詞a licence to print money because ,定位到第一段第二句，其他科學家也免費進行同行評議的專門工作，因為它是獲得地位和生產科學知識的核心要素。正確選項D，acquisition原詞， for free替換選項中的，cost nothing.
27, 細節題 A thrived mainly on universities libraries
根據題干關鍵詞Elsevier定位到第三段第一句話，The Dutch giant Elsevier, ....made profits of more than 490m last year. while UK universities alone spent more than 210m in 2016,該公司去年利潤超過4.9億英鎊 然而僅英國大學在2016年就花費了超過2.1億英鎊。正確選項A 主要依靠大學圖書館 為定位句的同意表達
28態度題 B concerned
根據題干中關鍵詞Sci-Hub的成功定位到第四段第二句， The success of Sci- Hub, .... have themselves legally accessed shows the legal ecosystem has lost legitimacy among its users and must be transformed so that it works for all participants這表明法律生態系統在其用戶中已經失去了合法性，必須進行改造，以便為所有參與者服務. 可見作者對于Sci- Hub的成功采取否定態度，正確選項B concerned擔憂，擔心。A relieved寬慰的，C puzzled困惑的屬錯誤選項， D encouraged鼓勵的，正反混淆
29推斷題 A allow publishers some room to make money
根據題干關鍵詞open access定位到第四段，最后一句 ...so that the publishers can make a profit before...,合理收取費用是未來出版商能夠獲利，A選項為同義替換。B render publishing much easier for scientists使發表對科學家來說容易得多 .C reduce the cost of publication substantiality 降低出版成本 D. free universities from financial burdens使大學擺脫財政負擔
30 細節題 D the few feed on the many
根據題干關鍵詞scientific publishing model定位到最后一段第五句，labour is provided places free in exchange for the hope of status, while huge profits are made by a few big firms who run the market places.勞動力被免費提供，以換取地位的希望，而一些經營市場的大公司則獲得了巨額利潤。 可知少部分作者免費勞動，大部分公司盈利，A選項為同義替換